There are two different patterns for the realization of socialism. The one pattern—we may call it the Marxist or Russian system—is purely bureaucratic. All economic enterprises are departments of the government just as the administration of the army and the navy or the postal system. Every single plant, shop or farm, stands in the same relation to the superior central organization as does a post office to the office of the Postmaster General. The whole nation forms one single labor army with compulsory service; the commander of this army is the chief of state.
The second pattern—we may call it the Fascist or German system—differs from the first one in that it, seemingly and nominally, maintains private ownership of the means of production, entrepreneurship, and market exchange. So-called entrepreneurs do the buying and selling, pay the workers, contract debts and pay interest and amortization. But they are no longer entrepreneurs. In Nazi Germany they were called shop managers or Betriebsführer. The government tells these seeming entrepreneurs what and how to produce, at what prices and from whom to buy, at what prices and to whom to sell. The government decrees at what wages laborers should work, and to whom and under what terms the capitalists should entrust their funds. Market exchange is but a sham. As all prices, wages and interest rates are fixed by the authority, they are prices, wages and interest rates in appearance only; in fact they are merely quantitative terms in the authoritarian orders determining each citizen’s income, consumption and standard of living. The authority, not the consumers, directs production. The central board of production management is supreme; all citizens are nothing else but civil servants. This is socialism with the outward appearance of capitalism. Some labels of the capitalistic market economy are retained, but they signify here something entirely different from what they mean in the market economy.
If “the human race divides politically into those who want people controlled and those who have no such desire,” anarchists and voluntaryists stand firmly with the later group. Voluntaryism is essentially Libertarianism taken to it’s ultimate conclusion. Anarchy. Voluntaryist principal beliefs stem from the principles of self-ownership and non-aggression. Voluntaryists understand the non-aggression principle applies to everyone, including government. The only people who truly advocate freedom in principle are anarchists and voluntaryists. They understand that forcibly dominating others is not legitimate, even when it is called ‘law,’ or even when it is done in the name of ‘the people’ or ‘the common good.’ Anarchism is founded on the observation that since few men are wise enough to rule themselves, even fewer are wise enough to rule others.
Anarchists believe that mankind is inherently good, that for most of history human beings have organized themselves in society without government and man-made law in a peaceful and productive way. They consider society to be a self-regulating order which develops best when least interfered with. Anarchists thus believe that political institutions are both irrational and unnatural and prevent an orderly social life.
Anarchy is the belief that people have the right to make their own decisions, live as best they choose among each others’ mutual assistance and communal support, and to conduct their livelihoods and relationships as they please, free of coercion, top-down dominance, or imposed government. Anarchists believe that if leaders are chosen, if organizations are established, then these are entered freely and exited at will.
Anarchism says no Individual or group of Individuals has the moral, legitimate right to forcibly rule over another group. Anarchy is society organizing itself through co-operation and mutual aid. Anarchy is not about majority rule. Anarchy entails a voluntary society which is based on Natural Law. This is law that creates the rules necessary for a peaceful society with minimal infringement upon individual freedom.
The first clear record of anarchist thought can be traced back to the Taoists in the sixth century B.C.